Acne vulgaris is a disease that is caused by various factors, including increased sebum production. The production of this sebum is stimulated by the effect of androgen on the sebaceous glands.
The main hormones associated with the development of acne are androgens, male hormones that help control sexual development during puberty in both males and females. There are three types of androgens that affect acne – dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S).
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the simplest and most potent of the androgens and is produced from testosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. Testosterone and DHEA-S can also contribute to the development of acne.
So, the main factor behind acne is increased sebum production, which is stimulated by androgens, and especially DHT.
In both men and women, starting at puberty, these hormones are produced in the genitals and also in the adrenal glands, which are located near the kidneys. As hormones travel through the body in the blood, they end up in various areas of the body, including the skin.
When androgens reach the skin, they enter sebocytes, special cells located in the skin’s oil-producing glands called sebaceous glands. Androgens stimulate the glands to produce more sebum – skin oil. The more androgens there are in the skin, the more sebum is produced.
Pumps are also often associated with increased insulin resistance and high serum DHT levels, which may explain their association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Foods with a high glycemic index (usually foods that contain refined carbohydrates) and skimmed milk have been shown to affect sebum production.
Disrupted sleep cycles can cause hormone imbalances that can affect sebum production. Regular changes in your sleep cycle can increase cortisol levels in the body, which can cause hormone changes and promote sebum production.
Stress and depression can increase cortisol and pro-opiomelanocortin levels.
Pollution is also one of the factors that can affect the condition of the skin and promote the production of sebum. Fine particles 20 times smaller than pores can penetrate the deeper layers of the epidermis, causing inflammation, dehydration and a cellular reaction. In order to protect your skin, it is important to clean and cleanse your skin regularly.
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